Newswise — Greater lifetime exposure to the stress of traumatic events was linked to higher levels of inflammation in a study of almost 1,000 patients with cardiovascular disease led by researchers at the San Francisco VA Medical Center and the University of California, San Francisco.
In the first study to examine the relationship between cumulative traumatic stress exposure and inflammation, the scientists found that the more traumatic stress a patient was exposed to over the course of a lifetime, the greater the chances the patient would have elevated levels of inflammatory markers in his or her bloodstream.
“This may be significant for people with cardiovascular disease, because we know that heart disease patients with higher levels of inflammation tend to have worse outcomes,” said lead author Aoife O’Donovan, PhD, a Society in Science: Branco Weiss Fellow in psychiatry at SFVAMC and UCSF.
The study was published electronically in February in Brain, Behavior, and Immunity.
The authors looked at exposures to 18 different types of traumatic events, all of which involved either experiencing or witnessing a direct a threat to life or physical integrity, in 979 patients age 45 to 90 with stable heart disease. They then measured a number of clinical markers of inflammation that circulate in the bloodstream, and found a direct correlation between degree of lifetime stress exposure and levels of inflammation.
Five years later, they measured the surviving patients’ inflammation markers again, and found that the patients who had originally reported the highest levels of trauma at the beginning of the study still had the highest levels of inflammation.
“Even though we lost some study participants because they died, we still observed the same relationship in those who remained,” O’Donovan said. “This suggests that it wasn’t just the people who were the most sick at the outset who were driving this effect.”
Senior investigator Beth Cohen, MD, a physician at SFVAMC, emphasized that the effect remained even after the researchers adjusted for psychiatric diagnoses such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), anxiety and depression.
“Not everyone who is exposed to trauma develops PTSD,” said Cohen, who is also an assistant professor of medicine at UCSF. “This study emphasizes that traumatic stress can have a long-term negative impact on your health even if you don’t go on to develop PTSD. It also tells us that, as clinicians, we need to think about not just which diagnostic box someone might fit into, but what their lifetime trauma exposure has been.”
Although the study did not probe the potential causes for the link between lifetime stress and inflammation, O’Donovan offered one possible explanation.
“We know that in the aftermath of traumatic stress, people become more sensitive to threats,” she said. “This is actually pro-survival, because if you’re in a dangerous environment, that alertness can help you avoid future harm.”
However, she explained, people with heightened threat sensitivity may also show increased inflammatory responses. “What we think is happening is that people with a history of multiple traumatic stress exposures have increased inflammatory response more often and for longer periods, and so inflammation becomes chronically high,” she said.
Cohen noted that “this is a study of older people, and the cumulative effects that decades of traumatic experiences have on their bodies. If we could intervene with young people,” she said, “using techniques that we know help fight stress, such as exercise, yoga and other integrative health techniques, it would be interesting to know if we might be able to prevent some of this.”
The study subjects were all participants in the Heart and Soul Study, an ongoing investigation into the link between psychological factors and the risk of heart events and mortality in patients with stable heart disease. The Heart and Soul study is directed by Mary Whooley, MD, a physician at SFVAMC and a professor of medicine at UCSF.
Co-authors of the study are Thomas Neylan, MD, of SFVAMC and UCSF, and Thomas Metzler, MA, of SFVAMC.
The study was supported by funds from the National Institutes of Health, the U.S. Department of Defense, the Irene Perstein Foundation, the Department of Veterans Affairs and a Society in Science: Branco Weiss Fellowship. Some of the funds were administered by the Northern California Institute for Research and Education.
NCIRE – The Veterans Health Research Institute – is the largest research institute associated with a VA medical center. Its mission is to improve the health and well-being of veterans and the general public by supporting a world-class biomedical research program conducted by the UCSF faculty at SFVAMC.
SFVAMC has the largest medical research program in the national VA system, with more than 200 research scientists, all of whom are faculty members at UCSF.
UCSF is a leading university dedicated to promoting health worldwide through advanced biomedical research, graduate-level education in the life sciences and health professions, and excellence in patient care.
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Prolonged sitting is considered detrimental to health, but evidence regarding the independent relationship of total sitting time with all-cause mortality is limited. This study aimed to determine the independent relationship of sitting time with all-cause mortality.
We linked prospective questionnaire data from 222 497 individuals 45 years or older from the 45 and Up Study to mortality data from the New South Wales Registry of Births, Deaths, and Marriages (Australia) from February 1, 2006, through December 31, 2010. Cox proportional hazards models examined all-cause mortality in relation to sitting time, adjusting for potential confounders that included sex, age, education, urban/rural residence, physical activity, body mass index, smoking status, self-rated health, and disability.
During 621 695 person-years of follow-up (mean follow-up, 2.8 years), 5405 deaths were registered. All-cause mortality hazard ratios were 1.02 (95% CI, 0.95-1.09), 1.15 (1.06-1.25), and 1.40 (1.27-1.55) for 4 to less than 8, 8 to less than 11, and 11 or more h/d of sitting, respectively, compared with less than 4 h/d, adjusting for physical activity and other confounders. The population-attributable fraction for sitting was 6.9%. The association between sitting and all-cause mortality appeared consistent across the sexes, age groups, body mass index categories, and physical activity levels and across healthy participants compared with participants with preexisting cardiovascular disease or diabetes mellitus.
Prolonged sitting is a risk factor for all-cause mortality, independent of physical activity. Public health programs should focus on reducing sitting time in addition to increasing physical activity levels.
LOS ANGELES, March 28 - An international hit who has thrilled fans everywhere from his native Canada to his ancestral home of Italy, Phil "The Italian Sensation" Lo Greco will expand his reach even further in the coming months and years, as it was announced today that the unbeaten welterweight has signed a promotional agreement with Golden Boy Promotions who will co-promote him along with his Italian co-promoter OPI 2000.
"This is the greatest moment of my career so far and I promise Golden Boy Promotions that I will give them many more great moments before I'm done," said Lo Greco. "I am looking forward to fighting the best the division has to offer both here at home and around the world and my goal, just like any boxer's, is to win a world championship."
"We're excited to have Phil Lo Greco on our team and we believe he has what it takes to become another Golden Boy Promotions world champion," said Oscar de la Hoya, President of Golden Boy Promotions. "He has a fan-friendly style and he has proven to be a draw in Canada and Italy, but our goal is to bring him to the United States and I know he will be just as popular here."
"We're very happy to be working with Oscar de la Hoya and Golden Boy Promotions on Phil's career as they are the best in the business," said Salvatore Cherchi, President of OPI 2000.
Born in Toronto, but raised in Sicily until the age of nine, when he and his family returned to Canada, Phil Lo Greco (22-0, 12 KO's) began boxing at the age of 10, eventually winning a host of national titles before he enlisted in the Italian Army in 2003 at the age of 18. While in Italy, Lo Greco qualified for the 2004 Olympic team, but decided instead to pursue a professional career in Canada, which he began in 2006. Since then, his professional record has been perfect, and he has packed houses in Canada as well as Italy thanks to his talent, exciting style and charisma. In June of 2010, he won the vacant WBC international welterweight title with a ninth round knockout of Slawomir Ziemlewicz and the 27-year-old has since scored two more victories, setting up what promises to be the biggest year of his career in 2012.
Paulie 'Magic Man' Malignaggi On Ukrainian mission To Become Two-Division World Champion
WBA Welterweight Title Fight vs. Senchenko Live On PPV Apr. 29
Challenger Paulie "Magic Man" Malignaggi
HOBOKEN, NJ (March 28, 2012) - Former International Boxing Federation ("IBF") Light Welterweight Champion Paulie "Magic Man" Malignaggi will soon embark on his Ukrainian mission, as he challenges undefeated World Boxing Association ("WBA") World Welterweight Champion Vyacheslav Senchenko, live on pay per view April 29 from Donboss Arena in Donetsk, Ukraine.
Senchenko vs. Malignaggi," presented by Union Boxing Promotion, is being distributed in the United States by Integrated Sports Media for live viewing at 1:00 PM/ET - 10:00 AM/PT on both cable and satellite pay-per-view via iN Demand, DIRECTV, DISH Network and Avail-TVNfor a suggested retail price of only $29.95.
"I look forward to becoming the WBA World Welterweight Champion," Malignaggi commented. "I'm not worried about fighting over there because the WBA and Golden Boy Promotions have appeased any fears I may have had at first. Golden Boy takes good care of its fighters, so I took the fight."
Malignaggi (30-4, 6 KOs) captured the IBF junior welterweight title in 2007, scoring a 12-round decision over defending champLovemore N'dou, successfully defending that belt twice versus Herman Ngoudjo (DEC12) and N'dou (DEC12) in a rematch before relinquishing the title in order to face Ricky Hatton in the fall of 2008. Since moving up to welterweight, Malignaggi is unbeaten with victories against Michael Lozada (TKO6), Jose Miguel Cotto (DEC10) and Orlando Lora (DEC10).
"I love fighting at 147 pounds and look forward to this opportunity to become a two-division world champion that will legitimize me even more," the outspoken 31-year-old Malignaggi said. "I'm smarter now about my body and making 147 isn't a strain. I'm a high-energy fighter and now I'm not draining myself losing weight."
2000 Ukraine Olympian Senchenko, who is rated No. 5 in the world by The Ring Magazine at welterweight,won the WBA title in 2009 by way of a 12-round decision against previously undefeated Yuriy Nuzhnenko. Vyacheslav has successfully defended his world title belt three times against Motoki Sasaki (DEC12), Charlie Jose Navarro (DEC12) and more recently Marco Antonio Avendano (TKO6) last August in his last fight.
"This fight is driving me because I want my first title defense to be at the Barclay Center in Brooklyn (where Maligaggi lives), October 20th on opening night," Malignaggi added. "I'm going to beat this guy to become a two-division World champion. Senchenko's never been in the ring with anybody like Paulie Malignaggi. He's never seen anybody like me. He has fought in the comfort of his home during his entire career against pitiful opponents.
"I'm the biggest name he's ever fought. He's never fought anybody on my level. He's in for a rude awakening April 29th. I'm going to force him to adapt and dig down to the point where he's not going to want to get up and fight me every three minutes. I have the answer for everything he brings into the ring. There's nothing he can do that I haven't seen and can't handle. I'm better than him. Senchenko has never fought anybody like Pauli Malignaggi."
Integrated Sports Media: North America's leading distributor of International Pay-Per-View and Closed Circuit sports events has presented World Championship and world-class boxing matches featuring Erik Morales, Vitali Klitschko, Ricky Hatton, Cristian Mijares, Evander Holyfield, Roy Jones, Jr., Tomasz Adamek, Ivan Calderon, Rocky Martinez, Nicolai Valuev, Amir Khan, Marco Antonio Barrera, Arthur Abraham, David Haye, John Ruiz, Wilfredo Vasquez, Jr., Brian Viloria, Giovani Segura and Ruslan Chagaev, as well as world championship and world-class mixed martial arts shows featuring Fedor Emelianenko, Tim Sylvia, Bobby Lashley, Mirko Filipovic, Bob Sapp, Jeff Monson, and Roy Nelson. In addition, Integrated Sports Media distributed numerous International soccer matches featuring teams like Real Madrid,Club America of Mexico and the National Teams of Argentina, Honduras, El Salvador and the United States. For more information on upcoming Integrated Sports events visit www.integratedsportsnet.com.
SAN DIEGO, March 28, 2012 /PRNewswire/ — The countdown to summer has begun, and many are flocking to the gym to get back into bathing suit shape. The American Council on Exercise (ACE) reminds excercise enthusiasts of the importance of safety when starting a new fitness program or ramping up a workout regimen. To help fitness seekers workout safely and efficiently, ACE has released its list of the top three most common mistakes, and how to avoid them. ACE is America’s leading authority on fitness and the world’s largest nonprofit fitness and personal trainer certification, continuing education and training organization.
“As America’s Workout Watchdog, at ACE we are constantly evaluating the latest fitness trends, techniques and routines to determine both the benefits and dangers presented to fitness seekers,” said ACE exercise physiologist, Jessica Matthews. “While these three training modalities are highly effective when done properly, using incorrect form can increase risk of injury. For the most effective and safe workout, we recommend enlisting the aid of a certified personal trainer, who can provide guidance on how to be safe while getting the most out of a workout.”
The following are the top three errors most commonly made with popular workout trends, and tips from Matthews on how to correct these mistakes:
1. Plyometrics: Quick, powerful movements, known as plyometrics, include exercises such asdepth jumps, multidirectional drills, and cone jumps, and are designed to increase muscular power and explosiveness. Appropriate strength, flexibility and postural mechanics are necessary in order to avoid injury. Incorrectly landing on the heel or the ball of the foot, however, can increase impacting forces and make participants prone to injury.
How to correct: Master the art of landing correctly, before moving into more advanced moves like full jumps and hops. Focus on landing softly on the mid-foot and then roll forward to push off the ball of the foot – avoiding excessive side-to-side motion at the knee in the process. To further reduce the risk of injury, it is important to complete adynamic warm-up before performing plyometric exercises.
2. Kettlebells: Research confirms thatkettlebell workouts are an extremely effective form of training that can be performed in a relatively short period of time. The problem lies in that many people who use kettlebells do not understand the proper mechanics for the exercises. For example, many incorrectly perceive the kettlebell single arm swing as a shoulder exercise when, it should be working the core.
How to correct: When performing the kettlebell single arm swing, avoid lifting with the back or the shoulders.Like in many kettlebell exercises, the hips should always drive the movement. To execute this movement correctly, contract the abdominal muscles and hinge at the hips. While exhaling, initiate an explosive upward movement to swing the kettlebell upward coming to a standing position. The momentum generated through the lower body should allow the arm to become parallel with the floor with neutral alignment maintained through the wrists. If it is too difficult to achieve the desired arm position, attempt to generate more power from the lower body by thrusting harder with the gluteal muscles from the lowered position.
3. High-Intensity Interval Training (HIIT): HIIT is being used by exercise enthusiasts to add new challenges and variety to workouts. It is a cardiorespiratory training technique that increases the intensity of a workout by alternating between brief speed and recovery intervals to maximize training sessions in a short amount of time. Carelessly overlooking the active recovery intervals that are integral to HIIT is what can make fitness fans more prone to injury.
How to correct:While there isn’t one single best way to structure sessions, when getting started with HIIT after completing a five minute warm-up, begin with a 1:2 or 1:3 ratio of speed intervals to active recovery intervals. This means one minute of speed work to every two or three minutes of active recovery. Avoid the temptation to shorten the recovery intervals, or to let the recovery periods be less than active. These recovery intervals are when the body produces more energy for the next bout of high-intensity exercise and also removes metabolic waste from the muscles. Remember, active recovery periods should always be as long – if not longer – than the high-intensity intervals. In terms of perceived exertion, high-intensity intervals should be about a seven or higher (on a scale of 0-10) while active recovery intervals should be at about a four or five.
For more workout recommendations, fitness technique tips and expert advice, please visit www.acefitness.org.
About ACEThe American Council on Exercise (ACE), America’s premier fitness and personal trainer certification, continuing education, and training organization, is a nonprofit organization dedicated to promoting the benefits of physical activity and protecting Americans against unsafe and ineffective fitness products and instruction. ACE sponsors university-based fitness and exercise science research studies and is the world’s largest nonprofit fitness certifying organization. For more information on ACE and its programs, call (800) 825-3636 or visit the ACE website at www.acefitness.org. AMERICAN COUNCIL ON EXERCISE, ACE and the ACE logos are Registered Trademarks of the American Council on Exercise.